ADHD is one of the most commonly occurring psychiatric disorder in childhood. About 4 million youth aged 4-17 years have ADHD. Though ADHD is more common in children it occurs in adults too.
When to call it ADHD?
As per Dr Mitali Soni Loya Psychiatrist in Bhopal to call it ADHD there should be symptoms of
Six (or more) of the following symptoms are present for at least 6 months and have negative impact on social and academic/occupational activities:
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities (e.g., overlooks or misses details, work is inaccurate).
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities (e.g., has difficulty remaining focused during lectures, conversations, or lengthy reading).
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly (e.g., mind seems elsewhere, even in the absence of any obvious distraction).
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., starts tasks but quickly loses focus and is easily sidetracked).
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities (e.g., difficulty managing sequential tasks; difficulty keeping materials and belongings in order; messy, disorganized work; has poor time management; fails to meet deadlines).
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (e.g., schoolwork or homework; for older adolescents and adults, preparing reports, completing forms, reviewing lengthy papers).
7. Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., school materials, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones).
8. Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli (for older adolescents and adults, may include unrelated thoughts).
9. Is often forgetful in daily activities (e.g., doing chores, running errands; for older adolescents and adults, returning calls, paying bills, keeping appointments).
2. Hyperactivity and impulsivity:
Six (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted for at least
6 months to a degree that is inconsistent with developmental level and that negatively impacts directly on social and academic/occupational activities:
a. Often fidgets with or taps hands or feet or squirms in seat.
b. Often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected (e.g., leaves his or her place in the classroom, in the office or other workplace, or in other situations that require remaining in place).
c. Often runs about or climbs in situations where it is inappropriate. (Note: In adolescents or adults, may be limited to feeling restless.)
d. Often unable to play or engage in leisure activities quietly.
e. Is often “on the go,” acting as if “driven by a motor” (e.g., is unable to be or uncomfortable being still for extended time, as in restaurants, meetings; may be experienced by others as being restless or difficult to keep up with).
f. Often talks excessively.
g. Often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed (e.g., completes people’s sentences; cannot wait for turn in conversation).
h. Often has difficulty waiting his or her turn (e.g., while waiting in line).
Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations, games, or activities; may start using other people’s things without asking or receiving permission; for adolescents and adults, may intrude into or take over what others are doing).
Is it really ADHD?
Dr Mitali Soni Loya Psychiatrist in Bhopal suggests that if child has symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, or hyperactivity does not mean that he or she has ADHD. Certain medical conditions, psychological disorders, and stressful life events can cause symptoms that look like ADHD. Therefore it is important that you see a mental health professional so that an accurate diagnosis of ADHD can be made, to explore and rule out the following possibilities:
Learning disabilities or problems with reading, writing, motor skills, or language.
Major life events or traumatic experiences (e.g. a recent move, death of a loved one, bullying, divorce).
Psychological disorders including anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder.
Behavioral disorders such as conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder.
Medical conditions, including thyroid problems, neurological conditions, epilepsy, and sleep disorders.
Positive effects of ADHD in children
As per Dr Mitali Soni Loya Psychiatrist in Bhopal in addition to the challenges, there are also positive traits associated with people who have attention deficit disorder:
Creativity – As per Dr Mitali Soni Loya Psychiatrist in Bhopal children who have ADHD can be really creative and imaginative. The child who daydreams and has ten different thoughts at once can become a master problem-solver, a fountain of ideas, or an inventive artist. Children with ADHD may be easily distracted, but sometimes they notice what others don’t see.
Flexibility – Because children with ADHD consider a lot of options at once, they don’t become set on one alternative early on and are more open to different ideas.
Enthusiasm and spontaneity – As per Dr Mitali Soni Loya Psychiatrist in Bhopal children with ADHD are interested in a lot of different things and have lively personalities. They like to experiment they’re a lot of fun to be with.
Energy and drive – As per Dr Mitali Soni Loya Psychiatrist in Bhopal when the kids with ADHD are motivated, they work or play hard and strive to succeed. These children excel in the tasks of their interest.
Stimulant medications for ADHD
As per Dr Mitali Soni Loya Psychiatrist in Bhopal stimulants are the most common type of medication prescribed for attention deficit disorder. They include Methyl phenydate and Dextroamphetamine.
Stimulants work by increasing dopamine and nor-epinephrine levels in the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter associated with motivation, pleasure, attention, and movement and nor-epinephrine is important for cognition and executive functioning. As per Dr Mitali Soni Loya Psychiatrist in Bhopal For many people with ADHD, stimulant medications boost concentration and focus while reducing hyperactive and impulsive behaviors.
Non-stimulant medications for ADHD
In addition to the stimulant drugs, there are several other medications including Atomoxetine which is SNRI, an atypical antidepressant, and works by increasing nor epinephrine and dopamine in Pre frontal cortex region of the brain.
As per Dr Mitali Soni Loya Psychiatrist in Bhopal other medications include Clonidine, Guanefecine and Modafinil.